Treatment of Yet Untreated Conditions like Chronic Fatigue, Memory Impairment, Dementia, and Ongoing Inflammatory Conditions

By Dr. Fred Hui.

Methylene Blue is a versatile medicinal compound with a long history of use in various medical applications. Currently, it is FDA-approved and primarily used for the treatment of Methemoglobinemia, a life-threatening condition. Methylene Blue is stocked in almost all hospital pharmacies for use in emergencies.

Historically, Methylene Blue has been used for multiple purposes due to its important role in mitochondrial energy metabolism and its ability to neutralize toxic reactive oxygen metabolites.

Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses for almost all bodily functions. They produce energy, and during this energy production process, many toxic substances are generated. In a healthy state, mitochondria can offset the damage caused by these radicals and chemicals.

Whether it’s the function of muscles in our daily activities, the functioning of immune cells to kill bacteria through the production of various molecules, or the function of brain cells to maintain energy and regenerate their components, all rely on the energy produced by mitochondria. In simple words mitochondria act as batteries scattered in all tissues and supplying power for their functions.

In certain disease conditions when mitochondrial function is compromised, such as when intermediary enzymes are depleted or when there are genetic deficiencies or limitations in intermediary enzymes or in cases where mitochondria themselves are dysfunctional due to various genetic or acquired causes, the functions of all tissues are affected. This can lead to a multitude of issues like chronic fatigue when mitochondria cannot produce fuel for the day-to-day function of muscles. It can also lead to reduced cardiac function, resulting in feelings of tiredness and an inability to work to full capacity.

When mitochondrial function is affected in the brain and nerves, the production and movement of necessary neurotransmitters are disrupted, negatively impacting brain functions such as memory and the ability to focus. Defective mitochondrial function also contributes to the worsening of degenerative brain diseases like dementia and Parkinsonism. The inability of brain tissue to repair ongoing wear and tear and the delay in healing neurological damage are worsened when mitochondrial function is suboptimal.

Methylene Blue is a drug that has the capacity to optimize mitochondrial function through different mechanisms:

  1. It bypasses many intermediary reactions in the energy generation process of mitochondria, allowing energy production even in the presence of deficiencies in these enzymes.
  2. Methylene Blue efficiently neutralizes toxic oxygen radicals, reducing damage to mitochondria and other tissues, thereby optimizing mitochondrial activities throughout the body.
  3. Methylene Blue (MB) has been found to have strong anti-inflammatory properties and can help reduce inflammation in various biological systems. Proposed mechanisms include:
    • Inhibition of Nitric Oxide (NO) Production: Methylene Blue can inhibit the production of nitric oxide, a molecule involved in the inflammatory response. By reducing nitric oxide levels, Methylene Blue may help attenuate the inflammatory response.
    • Suppression of Pro-inflammatory Mediators: Methylene Blue has been shown to inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. These molecules play crucial roles in initiating and perpetuating the inflammatory response. By suppressing their release, Methylene Blue can help dampen inflammation.
    • Modulation of Immune Cell Function: Methylene Blue has been reported to modulate the function of immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, which are key players in the inflammatory response. It can affect immune cell activation, migration, and cytokine production, thereby influencing the overall inflammatory process.
    • Mitochondrial Protection: Methylene Blue has been shown to protect mitochondria from damage and dysfunction, which can occur during inflammation. By preserving mitochondrial integrity and function, it may help mitigate inflammation-associated tissue injury.

Some important off-label uses of Methylene Blue and their mechanisms include:

  1. Chronic Fatigue: Chronic fatigue, regardless of its cause, including fibromyalgia, is ultimately due to the inability of mitochondria to produce energy for muscle and nerve function. Methylene Blue, by rapidly neutralizing toxic radicals and using alternative pathways for energy production, can produce ATP to energize all processes, significantly improving symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue, as proven in multiple studies.
  2. Brain Disorders like Dementia, Memory Impairment, and Common Mental Health Issues: Brain function, like that of all other tissues, depends on a continuous supply of energy to function appropriately. Methylene Blue has been proven successful in many multicenter studies for brain disorders and mental health issues. It is successfully used in depression and psychotic disorders. Additionally, Methylene Blue functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, increasing the concentration of neurotransmitters required for normal brain function. In dementia and memory disorders, Methylene Blue reduces toxic oxygen damage, reverses degenerative processes, and optimizes mitochondrial function. It has also been shown to reduce the accumulation of abnormal proteins in brain tissues, which are responsible for altering brain function. Methylene Blue can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and reach metabolically active brain tissue, enhancing its functioning.
  3. Autoimmune Diseases: Methylene Blue, by neutralizing reactive oxygen radicals, has the capacity to reduce damage caused by overactive immune cells. It also modulates the inflammatory response by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, reducing immune cell activation, and suppressing the production of autoantibodies responsible for targeting self-tissues in autoimmune diseases. By regulating the immune system and preventing self-damage, Methylene Blue alleviates symptoms and slows disease progression in autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis.
  4. Chronic Fatigue and Post-COVID Symptoms: Our experience shows a positive response of Methylene Blue in post-COVID symptoms, including chronic fatigue, body aches, and other inflammation-related responses. This is not surprising considering its mechanism of action in preventing cellular damage by toxic oxidative mechanisms and stabilizing the function of immune cells and mitochondria in these cells.
  5. Anti-infective Functions: Methylene Blue has demonstrated antibacterial and antiviral properties in multiple studies. While there is a lack of multicenter and randomized studies specifically for COVID-19, it is quite possible that Methylene Blue is effective in directly killing the virus as well.

Methylene Blue is a pharmacological compound that is very safe in low doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg/kg body weight, with minimal side effects and drug interactions.  However, it cannot be used in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate deficiency, as the combination of Methylene Blue and this deficiency carries the risk of red blood cell breakdown.


Methylene blue can be administered orally as drops or in compounded capsules, as well as through the intravenous route.

The use of oral drops has the disadvantage of potentially coating the tongue and teeth in a blue hue.On the other hand, compounded capsules offer a solution to bypass the mouth, thereby preventing staining of the oral cavity and teeth.

For maximum effectiveness and potency, Methylene blue is best administered through a series of intravenous infusions, serving as a loading dose to address chronic deficiencies in mitochondrial function.


Methylene Blue is a potentially promising magic molecule with a range of potential benefits in degenerative neurological disorders, dementia, chronic fatigue, and autoimmune disorders. Its mechanisms of action on mitochondria, including electron transport facilitation, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory properties, contribute to its therapeutic effects. Further research is needed to fully understand its potential and optimize its clinical use, but Methylene Blue holds promise as a valuable tool in managing many challenging conditions.

Dr. Hui Clinic locations in downtown Toronto and Barrie Ontario offer this treatment.